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Festivals in Tibet/Festivales en Tibet/西藏的节日

 
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PostPosted: Sun 19 Apr - 15:22 (2009)    Post subject: Festivals in Tibet/Festivales en Tibet/西藏的节日
 




Tibetan New Year is the most important festival in Tibet. It is an occasion when Tibetan families reunite and expect a better coming year. Known as Losar, the festival starts from 1st to 3rd of the 1st Tibetan month. Specially made offerings are offered to family shrine deities; doors are painted with religious symbols; other painstaking jobs are done to prepare for the event. On the New Year's Eve, Tibetans eat barley crumb food (Guthuk in Tibetan) with their families and have fun since the barley crumbs are stuffed with different stuffing to fool someone in the family.


After the dinner it is the Festival of Banishing Evil Sprits! Torches are lit and people are running and yelling to get rid of evil spirits from their houses. The New Year is coming! Before the dawn on the New Year's Day, housewives fetch their first buckets of water in the new year home and prepare breakfast. After dressing up, people open their doors upon prayers and go to monasteries. People visit their neighborhoods and exchange their Tashi Delek blessings in the first two days. Feast is the theme during the session. On the third day, old prayer flags will be replaced with new ones. Other folk activities may be held in some areas to celebrate the events.

Scattered sparsely on the vast Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the possibilities for Tibetans getting together were relatively slim. As festivals provide these kinds of opportunity, in their long history many festivals have evolved and have gained great popularity among Tibetans.

The most important festival in Tibet is the Tibetan New Year, the importance of which equals that of Lunar New Year among the Han people, or that of Christmas in the West. The Tibetan New Year is a festival to say farewell to the current year and welcome in the new. People begin preparing for this festival upon entering the 12th Tibetan month, with sacrifices being presented on the altar of their deities and special foods delicately made to welcome the coming year.



New Year's Eve is also the time of the highly important Ghost Exorcising Festival. During this day, monasteries hold magnificent sorcerer's dances. Tibetans tidy their houses and decorate them beautifully, with the belief that the cleaning will drive away evil spirits and bad luck. In the evening, after everybody has eaten Guthuk (a kind of food for the New Year), it is time for the ceremony of exorcising ghosts. Torches and fireworks are lit to scare them off, and family members will walk along a road until they reach a crossroad where they believing they can abandon the evil spirits, the spirits being unable of finding the way back to the dwelling they had occupied. Then the New Year arrives. On the morning of the 1st day, local people will make butter lamps to be sacrificed, along with grain, to their gods. They will then don their best clothes and propose toasts with Chang (a Tibetan drink made from highland barley) to neighbors and exchange good wishes and on the second day, they pay a New Year visit to relatives. Usually, this festive event will last until the end of the Great Prayer Festival.
As the grandest of their religious festivals, The Great Prayer Festival is celebrated from the 8th to the 15th day of the first Tibetan month in Lhasa. With a history of over 500 years, it is now the highest religious seminar of Tibetan Buddhism. During the festival, they debate fiercely the Buddhist scriptures and hold religious examinations for learners of the Buddhist scriptures. Disciples from all over will come to worship the Buddha.

The Butter Lamp Festival falls on the 15th day of the first Tibetan month. During the daytime, people go to pray in temples and monasteries while at night there is a butter lamp show. Various lanterns shaped in the image of deities, animals, plants, and human figures are displayed, attracting people from the neighboring areas to appreciate them. Often, there is puppet show held as well and the event will last for several days. The Butter Lamp Festival is believed to be the happiest festival in Tibet.

Saka Dava Festival is observed on April 15th of the Tibetan calendar. This day is said to be the birthday of Sakyamuni, the Great Buddha, and the day he died and became a Buddha as well as the day of the arrival of Princess Wencheng (the queen to Songtsen Gampo, a great Tibetan king of the 7th century AD) in Lhasa. Many religious activities are held this day. People walk out of their houses and circumambulate around the Jokhang Temple and the Potala Palace . The three main circumambulation roads in Lhasa are crowded with devotees praying and prostrating themselves devoutly.

Shoton Festival, which means yogurt banquet in Tibetan, is the liveliest festival of summer. In the past, lamas locked themselves away in their monasteries during this season to devote themselves entirely to Buddhism for a month. When their devotions were over, lamas left the monastery to receive donations from the locals. Normally, people gave them yogurt, had yogurt banquets with them and made performances to welcome them. Nowadays, in the early morning of this day, people crowd into the Drepung Monastery to watch the unfolding of the Buddha. To Buddhists, this holy ceremony is a purification of the sprit and the soul. Later, this festive occasion is celebrated by performing Tibetan Opera in Norbulingka , so it has gained another name, the 'Tibetan Opera Festival'.

Harvest Festival, or Ongkor in Tibetan, often follows the Shoton Festival. It is a festival mainly celebrated in rural areas to pray for a good harvest. On this day, farmers put on their best clothes, carry harvest pagodas made from the ears of highland barley and wheat and circle around their fields beating drums, chanting holy songs and dancing. Then they will gather, drinking Chang and yak butter tea. In some areas, there are other activities as well, such as horse races, archery competitions and performances of Tibetan Opera. After the Harvest Festival, farmers will be busy harvesting their crops.

The Bathing Festival lasts for one week in the early part of the 7th month. Legend has it that pestilence was wide spread, leading to great suffering of the people. The Avalokitesvara, one of the Buddhist deities, poured holy water into the rivers of Tibet. After bathing in the rivers, people recovered miraculously from their illnesses. Ever since, at this time every year, people bathe themselves in rivers. This custom has been handed down from generation to generation and gradually developed into a festival. It is believed that river baths during this week will not only clean the body, but also wash away potential diseases.

In addition to the festivals above, there are many other festivals that are celebrated regionally, click Shigatse Festivals, Chamdo Festivals, Nakchu Festivals, Ngari Festivals, and Nyingchi Festivals for more information on festivals in these regions.




藏历年
藏历年是藏族人民的传统节日。藏历年初一,男女老少,见面都要互道“扎西德勒”(吉祥如意)、“洛萨尔桑”(新年好)。新年里,孩子们燃放鞭炮,大家喝青稞酒、酥油茶,互相祝酒,尽情欢乐。城乡演唱藏戏,跳锅庄和弦子舞。在牧区,牧民们点燃熊熊篝火,通宵达旦地尽情歌舞。节日期间,民间还有角力、投掷、拔河、跑马射箭等一系列比赛活动。

传统的藏历年,是藏族人民最隆重的节日,从藏历十二月初,人们便开始准备供过年吃、穿、玩、用的东西。这时家家户户开始在水盆中浸泡青稞种子,培育青苗,藏历年初一那天,要将长了一二寸的青苗,摆于佛龛茶几之上,预祝新年粮食丰收。从十二月中旬开始,家家户户准备酥油和白面,并陆续炸果子(卡赛),这是家庭主妇们大显身手的时候。“卡赛”的种类很多,有耳朵状的“苦过”,有长条形的“那夏”,有大麻花似的“木东”,有圆盘状的“不鲁”,还有勺子形的“宾多”。接近新年,每家每户都要准备一个叫做“竹素琪玛”的五谷斗,斗内装满酥油拌成的糌粑、炒麦粒和人参果等食品,上面插上青稞穗、鸡冠花和酥油制作的彩花板(名叫“孜卓”),还要准备好一个彩色酥油花塑的羊头(名叫“鲁过”)。所有这些摆设,标志过去一年的收成,预祝在新的一年里风调雨顺,农牧业获得丰收。

除夕的前两天,家家户户进行大扫除,摆上新卡垫,贴上新年画,二十九日晚饭以前,要在打扫干净的灶房正中墙上,用干面粉撒上“八吉祥徽”;在大门上用石灰粉画象征吉祥、永恒的符号;有的人在自家的房梁上画很多的白粉点,表示人寿粮丰。这天的晚饭,各家要吃面团土巴,叫做“古突”。这是按照日期名称命名的,“古”即九(表示二十九日),“突”,即面糊羹的意思(藏话“土巴”)。这与汉族吃年夜饭的习惯一样。这一顿饭,全家围坐欢聚。土巴的面团里包着各种东西,有石子、辣椒、木炭、羊毛等物,看看谁吃到这些东西。吃到包有石子的面团,预示将到的一年里他的心肠硬,木炭预示心黑,辣椒的嘴如刀,羊毛说明心肠软。吃到这些东西的人,都要即席吐出,引起哄堂大笑,以助除夕之兴。除夕晚上,根据各家经济条件,在佛像前摆好各种食品,准备好节日的新装。家庭主妇将煮好的“观颠”(放有红糖碎奶渣糌粑等的热青稞酒),初一早上天刚亮就送到各人被窝面前,让他们喝。

大年初一的传统习惯是家庭主妇首先起床,洗漱完毕,到井里打上第一桶水,喂饱牲畜后回屋唤醒一家人。全家人穿好新衣以后,按辈序排位坐定,长辈端来五谷斗,每人都先抓上几粒,向天上撒去,表示祭神,接着依次抓一点送进自己的嘴里。这时,长辈顺次祝“扎西德勒”,后辈总要回贺:“祝您身体健康,永远幸福,预祝明年新年,全家又如此团聚欢庆”。举行了新年仪式后,便吃麦片土巴和酥油煮的人参果,接着互敬青稞酒。年初一这一天,一般是闭门欢聚,互不访问。从初二开始亲戚好友互相拜年持续三至五天。

雪顿节
雪顿节是西藏最大的节日之一。雪顿节的主要活动有晒大佛、跳藏戏和过林卡三大内容。拂晓时,在缕缕桑烟和低沉的法号声中,哲蚌寺众多喇嘛把巨大的佛像徐徐展开,无论开幕式那天气候是阴是晴,当佛像展开时,太阳都会喷薄而出,照在神圣的佛像上,人称此为"天神合一"。随后,人们到罗布林卡,载歌载舞,彻夜狂欢,西藏各地的藏戏团也汇聚到此,进行藏戏表演。雪顿节又称“晒佛节”、“藏戏节”。

这是西藏历史悠久的传统节日之一。意为“酸奶节”,或“酸奶宴”。

 据说,最早起源于11世纪著名的佛学大师阿底夏在聂塘平原夏安居期间,规定僧人不许出门,以免伤害和危害地上活动频繁的各种小生灵的生命,从而违反佛教不准杀生的戒律。此间,世俗百姓都要向他们供奉酸奶,请他们享用。到五世达赖喇嘛罗桑加措时期,不仅要喝酸奶,而且还有精彩的藏戏和歌舞表演,逐渐演变为一种群众性盛大节日。节日时间各地不同。




燃灯节
藏语称“葛登阿曲”,藏历十月二十五日是燃灯节。藏传佛教格鲁派祖师宗喀巴在这天圆寂。这天晚上,寺院和俗家屋顶均要点亮无数盏灯,转经队仁川流不息,信徒们纷纷反手持的桑枝投入大昭寺前的香炉,祈祝神佛为自己带来好运,来年风调雨顺。

驱鬼节
藏语称之为“古突”,藏历十二月二十九日举行,这一天各地寺庙举行盛大的跳神活动,家家户户打扫卫生,驱鬼销灾,迎接新年。

春播节
又叫播种节、试种节,是给第一次学耕地的小牛套上轭木,试耕土地。每年正月的某一个吉祥日举行。

在春播节前三四天,各家要酿造青稞酒并给牲畜准备好装饰品。到春播节那天日出之时,由一个当年属相的妇女和几个老农民,穿上节日盛装,将准备好的茶酒、经幡、香炉带到破土耕地之处祭祀土地神、农业神,然后回村寨。这时,全村的男女老少便穿着自己最漂亮的衣服,牵着耕畜一起来到准备开耕的那块耕地上。大家欢欢乐乐地分成几摊子,喝茶饮酒。茶酒之后,由几个男人在开耕之处烧香、竖经幡、高唱颂词、祭祀神灵,准备试耕。一般说来,每户带来一对耕牛,由该户主妇向天敬酒三次,在耕牛脑门上抹三道酥油,以示吉祥。新耕的第一犁,由当年属相的妇女撒出吉祥种子,然后开始翻耕。敬神仪式之后,还要举行跑步、角力等娱乐活动。


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PostPosted: Sun 19 Apr - 15:22 (2009)    Post subject: Publicité
 
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PostPosted: Sun 10 May - 11:41 (2009)    Post subject: Festivals in Tibet/Festivales en Tibet/西藏的节日
 
thuk je che ! merci !

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PostPosted: Sun 10 May - 14:06 (2009)    Post subject: Festivals in Tibet/Festivales en Tibet/西藏的节日
 
merci de nous faire partager!please make us share!
ça doit être très beau!that has to be ras beautiful!


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PostPosted: Fri 5 Sep - 09:58 (2014)    Post subject: Festivals in Tibet/Festivales en Tibet/西藏的节日
 
Salut,J'aimerais vraiment découvrir votre site que je le voit contenant tant de chose assez interessantes.
voyance par mail gratuite


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PostPosted: Mon 12 Dec - 13:48 (2016)    Post subject: Festivals in Tibet/Festivales en Tibet/西藏的节日
 
There are certain things that I want and need to know.

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PostPosted: Today at 09:41 (2017)    Post subject: Festivals in Tibet/Festivales en Tibet/西藏的节日
 
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